As the global population is projected to soar to 9.1 billion by 2050, the agrifood sector faces a monumental challenge: increasing food production by 70% using the same resources available today. This situation is made even more daunting by a host of complex issues. Climate change threatens to significantly reduce per capita calorie availability and worsen nutritional outcomes. Soil degradation has reached critical levels, with 33% of Earth’s soil already severely degraded, impacting agricultural productivity. Additionally, geopolitical disruptions continue to affect supply chains, complicating food distribution across the globe.

In this critical context, agritech—agricultural technologies powered by the Fourth Industrial Revolution—emerges as a beacon of hope. Agritech promises to revolutionise farming practices by integrating cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), augmented reality (AR), and the Internet of Things (IoT). These innovations aim to increase the efficiency and sustainability of agriculture, enabling farmers to produce more food without requiring additional land, water, or other natural resources.

The urgency for adopting agritech is particularly acute in emerging economies, where agricultural productivity remains crucial for economic development and food security. Despite the clear benefits, the adoption rates of agritech solutions in these regions are alarmingly low, largely due to high costs, unclear returns on investment, and significant socio-economic barriers, including gender disparities and limited land rights for women, who constitute a substantial portion of the agricultural workforce.

The imperative now is to foster an environment where agritech can thrive, ensuring that all farmers, especially smallholders and women, can benefit from these technological advancements. This would not only address food security challenges but also promote sustainable agricultural practices that are resilient to the changing global climate and market dynamics.

The Role of Specific Agritech Innovations

Agritech is transforming agriculture through several innovative technologies, each tailored to enhance different aspects of the agricultural process. Here’s a deeper look into how these technologies are revolutionising farming, particularly in emerging economies:

  1. Intelligent Crop Planning: One of the cornerstones of agritech is the use of AI and gene editing to improve crop planning. Advanced AI algorithms analyse vast amounts of data to offer recommendations on crop selection, planting times, and genetic modifications that enhance yield and resilience. For example, gene editing allows scientists to make precise adjustments to plant DNA, enhancing their ability to withstand pests and adverse weather conditions without increasing resource usage. This kind of targeted intervention is crucial for maximising agricultural output in regions prone to climate instability.
  2. Smart Farming: This category incorporates AI and AR to provide dynamic crop management and field planning solutions. Farmers can use AR to visualise potential crop outcomes directly in their fields, which helps in planning and decision-making. AI-driven tools process data from various sources, such as satellite imagery and ground sensors, to offer precise recommendations for irrigation, fertilisation, and pest management. The integration of robotics further automates processes like planting, weeding, and harvesting, reducing the physical burden on farmers and increasing the precision of these operations.
  3. Farmgate-to-Fork: Traceability from farm to consumer is critical for ensuring food safety and quality. Blockchain technology plays a pivotal role here, creating immutable records of each step in the food supply chain. This not only helps in maintaining standards and preventing fraud but also supports fair trade practices by providing transparent transaction records. IoT technologies enhance this process by monitoring storage conditions and automating logistics, thereby reducing food waste and improving the overall efficiency of food distribution.
  4. Data Utilization: Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) in agriculture collects, processes, and disseminates crucial farming data, enabling farmers to make informed decisions based on real-time information. This data includes weather forecasts, soil health reports, and market trends, which are vital for effective farm management. DPI platforms also facilitate the sharing of this data across the agricultural value chain, ensuring that all stakeholders have the information they need to optimize their operations and policies.

These technologies not only improve agricultural productivity but also address some of the most pressing challenges faced by farmers today, including resource limitations, environmental concerns, and market access issues. By leveraging these innovations, emerging economies can transform their agricultural sectors into more productive, sustainable, and resilient systems.

Enhancing Adoption Through Public-Private Partnerships

The successful integration of agritech into the agricultural practices of emerging economies hinges significantly on the adoption rates among local farmers, which remain low due to several barriers. These barriers include the high cost of technology, unclear return on investment, and socio-economic challenges such as limited access to capital and traditional gender roles that affect women farmers disproportionately. To overcome these challenges and maximise the benefits of agritech, robust public-private partnerships (PPPs) are essential.

Key Strategies in Public-Private Partnerships

  1. Financial and Non-Financial Incentives: Governments can play a transformative role by offering incentives that encourage the adoption of agritech. These incentives can be financial, such as subsidies or tax breaks for agritech investments, or non-financial, like providing access to high-quality data through public digital infrastructures or simplifying regulatory processes for agritech startups and enterprises.
  2. Infrastructure and Data Access: Public entities can facilitate the creation of necessary infrastructure, such as reliable internet connectivity in rural areas, which is crucial for the operation of digital technologies. Furthermore, governments can ensure that farmers have access to valuable agricultural data collected through national DPIs. This data is instrumental in enabling farmers to make informed decisions that enhance productivity and sustainability.
  3. Education and Training Programs: A critical aspect of PPPs is education and capacity building. Public and private sectors can collaborate to provide training programs for farmers, focusing on how to utilize agritech tools effectively. This is particularly important in regions where farmers may not have prior exposure to such technologies.
  4. Integration of Local Needs and Custom Solutions: Private companies, in partnership with public agencies, can develop solutions that are specifically tailored to the local agricultural context and challenges. This bespoke approach ensures that the technologies are not only applicable but also add tangible value to the farmers’ daily operations.

Successful Examples of Public-Private Partnerships

Successful implementations of PPPs in agritech often involve collaborative projects that address specific local challenges. For example, partnerships in India have led to the development of localised weather forecasting models that help farmers make better planting and harvesting decisions, significantly reducing crop losses due to adverse weather conditions.

In Africa, PPPs have facilitated the deployment of mobile technology solutions that allow farmers to access market information, sell their produce directly to buyers at fair prices, and receive mobile payments, thus improving their income stability and economic resilience.

The Road Ahead

For PPPs to be truly effective in scaling agritech solutions, a sustained commitment is needed from all stakeholders involved. Governments must continue to act as facilitators by creating an enabling environment, private sectors should innovate responsibly and inclusively, and academia can contribute by researching and developing new technologies and training materials.



Real-World Application: Altered Carbon LTD and K9Sense Technology

In the landscape of agritech, real-world applications of specific technologies not only demonstrate their practical utility but also highlight their transformative potential. A prime example of such innovation comes from Altered Carbon LTD, a company that stands at the forefront of integrating digital scent detection technology into agritech. Their flagship product, K9Sense, uses advanced AI-powered sensors to detect gases, VOCs, and compound mixtures with exceptional precision and efficiency.

K9Sense Technology in Agriculture

  1. Crop Health Monitoring: K9Sense technology is adept at monitoring the health of crops by detecting specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. This capability allows for early diagnosis of diseases before they become visually apparent, enabling farmers to take preventative measures that save crops and reduce pesticide use.
  2. Storage and Quality Control: In the post-harvest phase, maintaining the quality of stored produce is crucial. K9Sense sensors can monitor storage conditions by detecting changes in the air composition, which can indicate spoilage or the presence of harmful contaminants. This technology ensures that the quality of agricultural products is maintained from farmgate to fork, enhancing food safety and reducing waste.
  3. Environmental Monitoring: Beyond direct agricultural applications, K9Sense contributes to environmental monitoring by detecting pollutants and hazardous gases in agricultural settings. This function is essential for maintaining the safety and sustainability of farming environments, ensuring that they remain healthy for both crops and workers.

Altered Carbon LTD exemplifies how innovative solutions can significantly enhance agricultural operations, emphasising efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and precision. This example underlines the potential of agritech to revolutionise farming practices by introducing capabilities that were previously unattainable.

Conclusion: The Future of Agritech in Emerging Economies

The integration of agritech into the agricultural sectors of emerging economies represents a transformative opportunity that extends beyond merely increasing food production. It encompasses enhancing sustainability, efficiency, resilience, and transparency across the entire agricultural ecosystem. By leveraging advanced technologies and fostering strong public-private collaborations, the agritech revolution is poised to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time, including food security, climate change adaptation, and economic inequality.

The future of agritech promises not only to meet the increasing global food demands but also to promote an inclusive growth model that incorporates the needs of all farmers, ensuring that no one is left behind in the agricultural transformation journey. The success of this endeavour will largely depend on continued innovation, supportive policies, and the effective implementation of technologies that are accessible and beneficial to all, particularly smallholders and marginalised groups in emerging economies.

The path forward for agritech is one of integration and collaboration, where technology serves as a bridge to a more sustainable and prosperous future for global agriculture.



  1. Artificial Intelligence for Agriculture Innovation, released in 2021.
  2. Food and Agriculture Organization, “Almost Half the World’s Population Lives in Households Linked to Agrifood Systems”, 3 April 2023: 
  3. World Economic Forum, Artificial Intelligence for Agriculture Innovation, March 2021: WEF_Artificial_Intelligence_for_Agriculture_Innovation_2021.pdf.